Vaccine Rollout Is Sluggish. Can These Pop-Up Inoculation Sites Help?

Kelly Picciurro, 29, a physical therapist from the Upper East Side, had been checking New York City’s website for days to find out when she could get the coronavirus vaccine. Many health care workers in the first priority group, like Ms. Picciurro, had been anxiously waiting to hear when it would be their turn.

After finally being able to make an appointment online on Monday, Ms. Picciurro was one of the first people at a clinic in East Harlem on Tuesday morning, one of the city’s initial two pop-up vaccination sites that mark a more urgent stage of the inoculation campaign.

The effort to vaccinate millions of New Yorkers against the virus has been off to a sluggish start, alarming city and health officials at a time when infection numbers are surging and a more contagious variant has been detected in the state. To ramp up capacity, the city is planning to open more than a hundred of these new vaccination hubs.

By 9 a.m., a trickle of health care workers had arrived at the East Harlem site, by bike from a nearby neighborhood, by car from Long Island and by taxi, still in their scrubs. Walk-ins were turned away, including Eric Ettinger, 65, a receptionist at a doctor’s office, who biked over just before dawn, was first in line and waited for over an hour before being told an appointment was required.

The process, for those lucky enough to get an appointment, was simple, and the site not busy on its first day of vaccinations.

“I’ve gotten my fair share of Covid tests, and this was nothing compared to that process,” Ms. Picciurro said after getting her shot. “Having the vaccine gives me a little more peace of mind going to work, going on the train.”

The city’s first vaccine pop-up sites — the second, in Lower Manhattan, also opened Tuesday — will be among some 125 new locations for administering coronavirus vaccines that are scheduled to open by the end of January, doubling the current number, the city said. The goal is to accelerate the rate at which New Yorkers are getting vaccines.

As of Tuesday morning, only 118,000 people had been vaccinated in New York City, data showed, despite the city having received more than 480,000 doses. Almost no vaccinations took place on Christmas and New Year’s Day, and limited numbers have been inoculated on weekends. At that pace, it will take more than four years to reach everyone in the city, officials have said.

Only 690 people had received the necessary second dose of the vaccine as of Monday night.

The slow rollout, city and state officials said this week, has been caused in part by restrictive rules governing who can receive the first vaccinations, overwhelmed hospitals struggling with the logistics, and a worse-than-expected pace in nursing homes, which had vaccinated only 11,000 residents through a federally run program as of Monday, according to City Hall.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo on Monday criticized some hospitals for what he called a lack of urgency in getting staff members vaccinated and threatened $100,000 fines for those that do not distribute their vaccine allocations within a week.

“We want those vaccines in people’s arms,” Mr. Cuomo said, adding, “This is a very serious public health issue.”

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Answers to Your Vaccine Questions

With distribution of a coronavirus vaccine beginning in the U.S., here are answers to some questions you may be wondering about:

    • If I live in the U.S., when can I get the vaccine? While the exact order of vaccine recipients may vary by state, most will likely put medical workers and residents of long-term care facilities first. If you want to understand how this decision is getting made, this article will help.
    • When can I return to normal life after being vaccinated? Life will return to normal only when society as a whole gains enough protection against the coronavirus. Once countries authorize a vaccine, they’ll only be able to vaccinate a few percent of their citizens at most in the first couple months. The unvaccinated majority will still remain vulnerable to getting infected. A growing number of coronavirus vaccines are showing robust protection against becoming sick. But it’s also possible for people to spread the virus without even knowing they’re infected because they experience only mild symptoms or none at all. Scientists don’t yet know if the vaccines also block the transmission of the coronavirus. So for the time being, even vaccinated people will need to wear masks, avoid indoor crowds, and so on. Once enough people get vaccinated, it will become very difficult for the coronavirus to find vulnerable people to infect. Depending on how quickly we as a society achieve that goal, life might start approaching something like normal by the fall 2021.
    • If I’ve been vaccinated, do I still need to wear a mask? Yes, but not forever. Here’s why. The coronavirus vaccines are injected deep into the muscles and stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. This appears to be enough protection to keep the vaccinated person from getting ill. But what’s not clear is whether it’s possible for the virus to bloom in the nose — and be sneezed or breathed out to infect others — even as antibodies elsewhere in the body have mobilized to prevent the vaccinated person from getting sick. The vaccine clinical trials were designed to determine whether vaccinated people are protected from illness — not to find out whether they could still spread the coronavirus. Based on studies of flu vaccine and even patients infected with Covid-19, researchers have reason to be hopeful that vaccinated people won’t spread the virus, but more research is needed. In the meantime, everyone — even vaccinated people — will need to think of themselves as possible silent spreaders and keep wearing a mask. Read more here.
    • Will it hurt? What are the side effects? The Pfizer and BioNTech vaccine is delivered as a shot in the arm, like other typical vaccines. The injection into your arm won’t feel different than any other vaccine, but the rate of short-lived side effects does appear higher than a flu shot. Tens of thousands of people have already received the vaccines, and none of them have reported any serious health problems. The side effects, which can resemble the symptoms of Covid-19, last about a day and appear more likely after the second dose. Early reports from vaccine trials suggest some people might need to take a day off from work because they feel lousy after receiving the second dose. In the Pfizer study, about half developed fatigue. Other side effects occurred in at least 25 to 33 percent of patients, sometimes more, including headaches, chills and muscle pain. While these experiences aren’t pleasant, they are a good sign that your own immune system is mounting a potent response to the vaccine that will provide long-lasting immunity.
    • Will mRNA vaccines change my genes? No. The vaccines from Moderna and Pfizer use a genetic molecule to prime the immune system. That molecule, known as mRNA, is eventually destroyed by the body. The mRNA is packaged in an oily bubble that can fuse to a cell, allowing the molecule to slip in. The cell uses the mRNA to make proteins from the coronavirus, which can stimulate the immune system. At any moment, each of our cells may contain hundreds of thousands of mRNA molecules, which they produce in order to make proteins of their own. Once those proteins are made, our cells then shred the mRNA with special enzymes. The mRNA molecules our cells make can only survive a matter of minutes. The mRNA in vaccines is engineered to withstand the cell’s enzymes a bit longer, so that the cells can make extra virus proteins and prompt a stronger immune response. But the mRNA can only last for a few days at most before they are destroyed.

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